What you don't know can cost you a lot of money

cost graph

Many portfolios are not constructed or managed to minimize unnecessary taxes, to minimize wasted expenses that do not increase returns or reduce risk, or to have an asset allocation that maximizes expected return for a given level of expected risk.

The chart above shows an example sub-optimal portfolio (light green line, with a starting amount of $10,000) that is expected to yield 6% per year after taxes and investment expenses (such as sales commissions, mutual fund operating expenses, etc.). The chart also shows what happens if the tax efficiency, expense efficiency, and asset allocation optimization are each improved to add 0.5% to the annual return rate. If such improvements are made, the expected value of the portfolio will be 7% larger after 5 years, 13% larger after 10 years, 25% after 20 years, 34% after 30 years, and 43% larger after 40 years!

Listed below are examples of investment knowledge that may be used to create these greater portfolio efficiencies.

Saving & Investing for Private Elementary & Secondary Schools

Saving & Investing for College

Saving & Investing for Retirement

Investments for Charitable Giving

Investments and Income Taxation

Investments and Your Home

Investments and Estate Planning

Investing in General